Monday, 30 September 2013

End of Course Reflection

What a journey! From a personal view point it was a real struggle initially working in a new format. It was frustrating which  I struggled to come to grips with. This format was chosen possibly to put us in an authentic situation in relation to change with technologies.

The course implemented a blogging component which I really enjoyed. I found the features that  this technology can bring to education extremely worthwhile. I am not new to blogging but every time I have utilised a blog my expertise has grown and allowed me to use the technology effectively for myself. I have also used blogging with one of my classes and this experience supports the view that it can be an effective reflection tool.

The 'arena of change' highlighted that each decision made by an ecosystem affected other ecosystems throughout the stadium. Davis (2008)suggests that the teacher is a keystone specie that has the most influence on the learning ecology. This was a positive idea for me personally as this supports my belief on the importance of the teacher's role. The scenario planning utilising the mOOC format was fast paced and enlightening. Being able to collaborate with people around the world on the same journey made the discussions broader and yet more balanced. The scenario planning was beneficial as to often you have an action plan to reach a goal that does not take into account the plausible future. I can certainly see the attraction of this model and can see myself using it in the future.

Once this intensive two week section was over it was time to regroup and focus on the case study research topic and the bibliographies. After being introduced to more change theories and models we were to identify ones we were going to implement and why for our final assignment. I found this really worthwhile as it helped to scaffold my train of thought for the intended journey of implementing a change. Researching Shroff, Deneen, & Ng (2011) Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) supported providing a voice from students that sometimes is needed when trying to adopt change in the classroom. Although I totally agree with the theorists (Davis, 2008; Evans & Chauvin, 1993; Sherry & Gibson, 2002) who suggest that teachers are an important factor as change agents, I believe that research needs to focus more on the students acceptance of technology.

The other two theories I drew on were, the Learning Adoption Trajectory (LAT) Sherry & Gibson (2002) and Rogers’s Diffusion of Innovation (2003). LAT I found was focusing on supporting the teacher while Rogers's theory aims at reducing the uncertainty. Both key elements for my case study which I found beneficial for the final assignment.
E-activities were designed to support our understanding, although at times the puzzle was not getting clearer. I want to focus on the main ones that strengthened my understanding. The initial topic for research was to be completed early in the course, although I felt unprepared this began the train of thought needed to be successful. It was tough in the sense that I was coming to terms with the change in format and now having to think ahead to predict what I was going to do and draft a provisional plan. I found it a strong start to the course as the communication and the ideas were flowing back and forth from the blogs and the forums strengthening our community.
As I am not a creative person and pretty much black and white it was a creative challenge to change the way I approached the task of creating a scenario plan. I really valued the lessons learnt and believe that by planning for the plausible future has more depth and value than that of  action planning. I found the scenario planning e-activities scaffolded this through the section well and believe without the strategic activities and enthusiasm of the participants on this course it would have been reduced.
Niki's "arena of change' model heightened the awareness of the need to consider the ecosystems that relate to our stadium. The mind map was a great tool to visualise these connections. This activity changed my way of thinking in respect to my acknowledgement of how I am connected to the school as opposed to my contracted employer.
There is still a lot to learn, but I feel I have a good base to expand on. From the scenario aspect of looking at the plausible future and what we should do to be prepared. To the 'arena', where identifying not only who is in the arena but also how we can communicate and share ideas and concerns effectively to enable successful adoptions of technology. How can I implement the framework such as the e-Learning Planning framework within my current school to assist them with the transition that they are planning to take without them taking offence?
As I complete my second assignment, the theories that I have used has helped to support the adoption of the new technology into my classroom. It supported me as a practitioner and personally as each model provided effective guidelines to assist this change. Change is complex, but not impossible, you have to be prepared to work with the theories and models to support all of those in the arena.
Davis, N. (2008) How may teacher learning be promoted for educational renewal with IT? In J. Voogt and G. Knezek (Ed.), International Handbook of Information Technology in Primary and Secondary Education': 507-520. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Evans, L., & Chauvin, S. (1993). Faculty developers as change facilitators: The concerns-based adoption model

Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations. New York: Free Press.

Sherry, L., &  Gibson, D. (2002).The path to teacher leadership in educational technology. Comptemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 2(2), 178-203.
Shroff, R. H., Deneen, C. D. & Ng, E. M. W. (2011). Analysis of the technology acceptance model in examining students’ behavioural intention to use an e-portfolio system. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 27(4), 600-618

Thursday, 12 September 2013

Reflection For The Organisation

This section of our course has certainly been enlightening and beneficial to myself as a practitioner. When implementing change whether it is with a technology or not I see the steps needed through my eyes. So this week was looking further out in my arena to the school. Firstly I investigated the e-maturity model.  

This “linkage” e-learning model recognises that organisations change progressively with the adoption of digital technologies. The linkage was between student, home and school. It was good to see that three way partnership being recognised. It looked at a range of schools which was at different stages for various reasons. Lowmoor School which had progressed would be an interesting school to observe and even work in as it had moved forward with the technology and the structures were it seemed, in place to effectively support the stakeholders and the new technology.  

The framework that sparked a real desire to look deeper into the organisation was the e-Learning Planning Framework (eLPF) document. This document was clear and precise and easy to use in an educational setting. The framework for me provided a guide to; where are you now, what needs to be done and how you could get there. The document describes itself as a “road map” which is exactly what it is.  It enables schools and staff to review their current level and provides avenues for improvement. This framework seems to have been influenced by Rogers’ diffusion of innovation and the TPACK Model to assist with the adoption of change. There was possibly more as it is structured to support and guide organisations, but I see these theories coming through the strongest.  

We were asked to do the readings for this section and then with the eLPF we were to examine a school of our choice and plot where we identified their stage and justify. Gathering data from discussions and strategic plans the school I investigated came out as emerging. For me that was interesting as by looking at the form initially I would have put them at pre emerging. It was a valuable exercise for me to grow as a professional. It opened my eyes up to where schools can sit and the ways and resources that could make them progress. The TKI website was full of information that could benefit this school. Reflection is a strong key to this framework as without it, leaders and teachers can not truly gauge where they sit in the framework and move forward.  

I am not sure how this school would use this framework. Would it bring about self doubts? Would it be valuable within this educational context? Or would it be just another piece of tokenism? I want to move forward with this framework, I think it could really help to grow the adoption of new technologies within the school. A few issues I would have is “saving face”. There seems to be the hierarchy in this society and you never question those perceived as more important than you (unfortunately I am not the quiet obliging type and question many things around here). Would this be an appropriate model to help shift this mentality?  

I have assessed this model as having the ability to support the ‘meso’ level to move into e-learning. By the eLPF having the four stages for each of the five dimensions as listed below allows motivated schools to identify the challenges and implement actions to succeed.
  1. Leadership and strategic dimension
  2. Professional learning
  3. Teaching and Learning
  4. Technologies and infrastructure
  5. Beyond the classroom

There is I think, much too learn about this model and how it could impact in the educational environment. I often think back to the infrastructure and drive within my context and think this would never work here. Do my leaders think that? Or are they willing to be supported by frameworks such as this to give them the drive to successfully implement e-learning?

As I reflect, I tend to have more questions than answers. However, I am ever hopeful in applying this into this context and help support the ‘meso’ level for better e-learning opportunities for the school, students and country.
Link to the eLPF section on the TKI website:

Sunday, 8 September 2013

eLPF- E Activity

 eLPF Framework

I have selected a large state secondary school from the UAE. The school’s current e-learning approach is characterised by a few individuals working by themselves to implement e-learning into their lessons.  
Above: Representation of my findings. Please note some boxes shaded to the left of emerging, indicating that the school has been assessed at a pre emerging stage.

The Five Dimensions:

Leadership and strategic planning: After consultation with school leaders I assessed this dimension as emerging. The school has implemented leaders to investigate opportunities for technologies to use in the school. Although no formal plan is in action that includes technologies, a small team is investigating possible future e-learning goals but does not show a pathway to get there. In their standing policy which is generic from the Ministry of Education, reference is made to the use and reasoning behind the use of ICT and cybersafety and their new iniative to implement ICT in schools (Ministry of Education). A big push for ICT in schools is about to happen and leaders did acknowledge that engagement through professional development needed to identify ways to work with and through technologies for learning and help support peers within the school community. 

Professional Learning: This dimension is at the emerging stage. Although there is not a strong culture of supporting learning with technologies, there are some teachers that are happy to mentor peers. This largely focuses on the skills needed to use the technology. With the lack of present support, mentoring and guidance there appears to be little inquiry into e-learning. Technology is still seen as an add on and not “as part of a teacher’s whole practice” (TKI). The school’s ICT Leader explains that prior to the present drive, little focus and opportunities for professional development for e-learning has been available. 

Teaching and Learning: No sign of e-learning in the near future playing an important role in the whole curriculum. Leaders and teachers agree it will happen but “in Brunei time”. This is a reality and it is restricted even further by the role of agencies outside of the school organisation. Through a questionnaire of 20 teachers it was identified only ten percent used technology to engage students. Of these ten percent  of teachers, they acknowledged it was not for deeper learning just as a filler or as the rubric identifies, an isolated skill building exercise. Assessment is paper based and strongly influenced through summative data. Identified as, emerging stage. 

Technologies and Infrastructure: Assessed as emerging, this is where a lot of the issues and lack of motivation relates to. Strong infrastructure is not in this school, lack of space, time and connectivity impact heavily. Leaders could not tell me if there was a plan to improve these challenges. Administration is balanced 50-50 between using paper and technology. The ICT lead position is newly created and she has a team of two around her to address issues that may arise. These staff members have an interest in ICT but little to no technical background. 

Beyond the Classroom: Identified as pre emerging this dimension is not seen as important in their culture. From an outsider point of view looking in, the possibility of “losing face” places the culture of education in a box. School leaders feel they do not need to engage with the family or community using technology. Many of the teachers are not qualified here and are hesitant about failing.  

Overall Judgement: Emerging. I believe they are in a culture and a system that puts a stranglehold on technology but with the new focus, hopefully this will change. As investigating this and talking to leaders and peers it seemed there was a sense of tokenism towards e-learning.



Ministry of Education Strategic Plan 2012-2017. Retrieved from 


DISCLAIMER: This assessment was conducted as a personal learning exercise to gain an understanding of the eLPF and my assessments were restricted to public documentation, discussions and feedback via a questionnaire. As part of this exercise I acknowledge these findings are based on the evidence I had gathered and that I did not have detailed insights into all organisational processes

Tuesday, 27 August 2013

Halfway, Halfway, Halfway

Reflecting on the last couple of weeks I feel a little disjointed. For me personally I have been on holiday for two weeks in Cambodia were I was giving my time and resources to an underprivileged  school I am involved in. Many times I found myself thinking of the benefit that scenario planning may have within this environment to ensure they are prepared for the future. I spoke to Py Py who is the manager of the school and we have decided to action this form of planning for the benefit of the school. Personally I think it is great, as I can see how we can benefit from this, especially in this third world country. Planning to begin in December when we are back, can't wait! Nothing like putting into practice new skills.

I have found myself this week over complicating things. Having been sick when back from holiday (that will serve me right) I have been working through the assignments and the tasks that I missed while being away. Although I have enjoyed this part of the course (SP) it is a lot to get your head around especially when missing some of the collaboration from the tweets etc. Revisiting my tasks it certainly has become apparent that there is so much more learning to do on this subject. At times I can see myself thinking that it is a new approach, but it is interesting to see the range of organisations and people utilising this form of planning now and in the past.

I work for a so called "Global Company" and was having a chat with the Country Manager on SP. It was interesting to discuss how they plan to meet the future. He had not heard of scenario planning which is quite funny really as Shell who I see as a big advocate of SP is one of the main financial partners here in Brunei which the country relies on for its wealth. So I can see one organisation forecasting with set goals and one looking out of the square to be prepared for plausible futures. After talking we decided to set a date to discuss what this planning involves and for what purpose. I certainly am trying to drive ICT here for the future so will be a good way to help plan for this future.

Going back to revisit the assignment one I have really enjoyed reading about the models and theories of change again. Placing the model/ theories into the context of implementing a wiki into the learning environment is really exciting. I am finding it is a real passion now as I am not of fan to date of wikis but by planning/ researching and working with the students I hope to be able to change my own mind and encourage adoption of the technology by the students, staff and management. I plan to use the TAM model as I see that as the biggest obstacle here while relying on Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation to increase the chance of a quicker adoption of the innovation.

As I work through the models and theory and justify my decisions of the inclusions of them I can see the relevance to my topic more clearly. It is interesting coming back to the topic as I felt that we had moved away from this and that I needed to confirm my understandings of what I had already written as well as strengthen my understanding. Davis (2008) arena of change is an area I am linking back into as this holistic viewpoint opens up the need to address the impact of decisions throughout the ecology system.

Sorry Wayne, aim to have completed last Friday but needed to read through and analyse again which for me the revisit has been beneficial to my understanding.

Sunday, 18 August 2013

Brunei Loses It's Grip On Education

Who would have thought that in todays world in 2030 Brunei has lost its stranglehold on it's own educational curriculum. A lot has changed as Mohd Hakeem Effendy explains, "Gone are the days when we were an oil rich nation able to support the direction of education in our own country, it has all gone". This is the sentiment held by many in Brunei where it seems not identifying this plausible future has allowed global corporations to hijack and manipulate our education system for their own good.

Dr Bob Bobby Head of Education for Asia is the man responsible for turning our curriculum upside down. As part of the Real World Corporation he has restructured learning to meet the needs and benefits of the company over it seems, the needs of the children. Dr Bobby explains that it was necessary to restructure, closing down schools, teachers and administrative staff being made redundant and shutting down the Brunei Ministry of Education. Without these measures Brunei would be bankrupt in 50 years. By creating online course we have allowed students to learn from home while still interacting with others globally. Although many students and parents we have contacted have embraced this new mode of learning it is widely felt that the Brunei culture will be lost as now it is not been taught throughout the grades.

Dk Siti Farina the former Head of Religious Affairs says, "If we lose our identity Brunei will be finished as a nation" She goes on to identify that the young people will be lost to the global world and as a nation we will be unable to keep them in our own backyard. But many young people we have spoken to disagree, many believed by learning in a more recognised curriculum will allow them to work overseas and bring the wealth back to their homeland. But the risk is the young will not return as the excitement and the advancement of possibilities will be too strong.

This reporter has witnessed the change and was a student when that change was beginning. It has allowed me to open my eyes and see what the world can offer me and what I can offer the world. I have not lost my culture or my drive to succeed instead I share this globally with others and also embrace other cultures and drive. The chance to work collaboratively with my global friends has enhanced not limited my education and my prospects in life.

Scenario Matrix

This is my scenario matrix looking at what education in Brunei may look like in the year 2030. These plausible futures are illustrated through the foods that are  key features in Brunei. My matrix is looking at the way open online learning education may change education in the future. It identifies push and pull factors such as global versus local, corporate versus government.
Within Brunei the banana is seen as a staple fruit, always here and readily eaten. The Bruneain durian is famous around Asia, and is supported by small local and corporate businesses to help with sales and production. Brunei is attempting to grow rice cheaply with the help of global partners. Brunei's shrimp crackers are marketed and produced by a global corporate company with the aim of achieving the best results for Brunei.

The horizontal axis identifies two uncertainties  that will impact on education in the future in Brunei. With the future in education looking possibly towards more online learning, will Brunei provide these opportunities for their students? Who will fund these new learning communities and at what cost to the community. Will the Government and the religious sector remain in control?  
The vertical axis looks at the local and global curriculum content. Will Brunei stay in the safe confines of their local curriculum or will a global curriculum open up and provide students the skills and learning opportunities needed to succeed in the wider global knowledge age?

These scenarios I will describe below:

Banana- In this scenario the learning is centred around the Islamic culture. Government and the religious sector steer the direction of the of the curriculum to meet the perceived "local needs" of the community. Technology is not embraced to create knowledge but rather to regurgitate existing knowledge. Connection between religious leaders and students becomes more widely accessible through technology with compulsory tutorials held everyday online. Although online learning will play a bigger part in a student's life,  schools will still exist to meet the majority of subject requirements. Limited money is spent on professional development to meet the changing ways of teaching and learning. These professional development sessions will remain in the control of the government where by so called "leaders" in the field will have very basic knowledge and understanding of the tools they are teaching the teachers how to use. Online learning will put pressure on the infrastructure of the network providers and will cause many frustrations for both students and teachers.  Free internet will be provided to all homes that have students residing in them.

Durian- This scenario is where corporate meets the local market. The corporate sector moves in to revolutionise teaching and learning. Education is fully funded, supported and delivered by the corporate sector.This is supported by local and international educational businesses aiming to open up educational markets online and face to face. Funding is performance based, where grades play a pivotal role. Standardised online assessments are administered with little to no formative assessment being recognised. Online learning is the recommended choice of students where they have access to online tutors and resources. Students will be using applications and tools created by these corporations to promote the corporations brands and products.

Rice- this scenario represents the Government working alongside global partners to produce a curriculum that meets the needs of Brunei and at the same time open up opportunities for global learning. Religious studies are now integrated throughout to keep the strong foundations that have been previously set by their parents and grandparents. Students will now have access to online courses at home, on their mobile and even through  holograms. Teachers are trained to deliver programs online and on going professional development led by local and international experts keeps them up with best practices. Education remains free, although extra incentives are given to high academic achievers. Online collaboration between local and international students as well as  teachers are common and are part of everyday life.

Shrimp Crackers- Due to the oil running out Brunei officials have opened up the market for education. It is too expensive for Brunei to run their schools and provide quality international teaching and learning opportunities. Open online learning is now the norm for Brunei. This is led by corporate businesses around the world. Options of asynchronous and synchronous modes of learning are available, however most integrate these two forms of delivery and learning. Education is now fully user pays and scaffolded costs are determined against achievements. The higher grade the less cost. High risk situation caused by the user pays system puts off many students who are unable to gain high grades limiting their discount of fees. Knowledge, is now "global knowledge" it embraces what is "out there". Students are self motivated to achieve and earn recognised badges to gain access to employment worldwide. Future employers have access to student learning to mentor and help guide students with the aim of a cadetship for the student. Learning is now in the hands of the students where teachers help to guide and support creation of knowledge. Standardised assessment is no longer used, it is now badges of achievement based on formative and self assessment of learning.

Thursday, 8 August 2013

Enjoying the Ride

So far it has been an interesting ride. I find myself thinking about terms such as forecasting, scenario planning, lens, uncertainties and trends without even realising it. Too give credit to this course I am enjoying this challenging change in mind set. With having a breakaway  with the family in Cambodia  where we help to sponsor a school through financial and time support I constantly see myself reflecting on the meaning of scenario planning and how it could benefit these wonderful children. I want to walk away from this course with the knowledge that I am able to use these skills to help plan a future for the better in this context. Is it going to be tricky? Sure is. But I think to work and collaborate in an environment where there are less barriers in relation to imagination and creativity I think we can help to map out a better future for the school.

I feel I am slightly behind as I now need to work on my matrix. It is an interesting proposition as I want to utilise it for the better of my educational situation in Brunei. I am not a creative or imaginative person rather a black and white sort of guy who is determined to succeed through strategic planning and goals. But, as I have discovered this is a predetermined focus of where I want to go and the need to diversify plausible possibilities will help me I think to have a better "go forward" plan.

My journey through the lens of a secondary teacher (year seven and eight, primary in New Zealand) will I think be interesting. Although I will not be here to witness and meet these new plausible futures in Brunei, hopefully by sharing and incorporating this form of planning will provide better opportunities for staff and students within my school. Although planning is mainly directed by the MOE, Principals are having more say. Is it a plausible future where Brunei Principals  have the control to plan/ map out their own plausible futures under the umbrella of the MOE? I don't think so but maybe it will happen. What will that mean for the use of technologies in education? I think it will have a huge impact as my Principal has been impressed with the easy introduction of tools for learning such as AVAILLL and Blogging.

Onwards and upwards as we take a break for 3 days on the beach before heading back to Phnom Penh. Next goal to do my matrix!!!

Tuesday, 6 August 2013

Two Major Trends Which Are Relevant To My Context

Openness is a major trend in my context as it is allowing teachers to not only gather suitable up to date resources for teaching but it is also allowing students to use these resources for their learning. No longer should resources be kept under cloak and dagger it is freeing up time and helping to support the education community to achieve it's goals. This is important in Brunei as resources are very old and outdated and students have been kept in this  demotivating learning environment with these demotivating resources.
Online learning/ collaboration environments is my second major trend to look at. With the world now in the "Information Age" we need to move away from the concepts and models that supported the "Industrial Age". It is important that these skills of creating knowledge are transferable to allow students to be capable of effectively working and learning in the future. Online learning environments provide students in Brunei to work together asynchronously. It allows them time to think and create their answer or opinion carefully. It is also a way for teachers to meet the needs of the students, by being able to identify early and correct any misunderstandings. It can be a powerful tool in this context but with success comes the many barriers to overcome.

Monday, 5 August 2013

Scanario Planning Through the Lens of a Secondary Teacher

My decision making context: I am reviewing the scenario through the lens of a secondary teacher in Brunei. My school has poor infrastructure and resources to deal with the needs of our "digital natives". Education in Brunei is not to give the skills for the future, rather it seems it is to give them old knowledge so they do not look to move forward and work towards a more independent life.

Overview of the scenario: This resource looks at the way the education community needs to adapt for the plausible 2025 future of education. The main focus is on the teachers and how their new role will evolve from a more traditional approach where learning experiences supposedly fit all students to a more creative, open and innovative way that will suit the future needs of society. It identifies the major drivers of change as being; informal and formal learning, teacher training, teacher networks (collaboration), 21st century skills, changing roles of schools, data protection and the widespread use and availability of technology. The scenario chosen by me is the diversified teaching career. The main focus here is to provide opportunities for students to learn in an environment that suits them. It identifies the drivers of change as being society, students, technology, role of the teacher and  by the need to create more personalised learning.

 Cachia R, Cao Y, Cuong Pham M, Fetter S, Garoia V, Klamma R,  Punie V, Rajagopal K, Redecker C, Sloep P, Vuorikari R, (2012). Teacher networks today's and tomorrow's challenges and opportunities for the teaching profession. Brussels, Belgium: European Schoolnet.

Brainstorm list of recommended decisions: Generate a bullet list of the decisions you would recommend based on your reading of the scenario, taking into account your decision-making context above.
  • Teacher education- training and support now for the future
  • Student education- identifying and exposing students to these new environments so an educated choice is made on their preferred learning environment.
  • Implement of support mentoring (varying levels of position where participants do not have an influence of position)
  • Educate society on advantages of these decisions for the future- this to include all stakeholders (education community, MOE, teachers, etc)
  • Create personalised e-portfolios for students (teachers will have training on these new tools)
  • "Model Schools" to help identify challenges and solutions to these. Also for these schools to be used as a support mechanisms for other schools.
  • Principal "Knowledge Net"- allowing for Principals to be leading from the front as a driver of supportive change
  • Access and trial technologies that will be suited for student use
  • Encourage better and cheaper access to the internet thus providing choice for students
Two most important strategic decisions: Education of new technologies and it uses for teachers and students is vital. Firstly in my context if teachers do not have that support throughout this new change in direction it will fail because they will make it fail. The local teachers are not motivated to learn new strategies but with guidance and support change has a good chance of being implemented successfully. Student education is also vital, if students do not understand how to utilise these new tools to suit their learning style then they may remain in a less motivating environment that pushes them towards failure. By educating students fully they have a chance with teachers to revolutionise
the learning environment.
Second major strategy will be to support the Principals in this new future. With an increase in power given to Principals here as opposed to being fully directed by the MOE it is important that these drivers of change are supported with the knowledge to motivate those in our community to implement new strategies. The culture within Brunei gives open respect to people in higher positions but behind closed doors the culture has the sharpest knifes in their drawers.

Transferability of recommended decisions for the scenarios alternatives: Education of students and teachers fit for the first three scenarios as well. By looking at the teachers as the change agents it is important for them to upskill and be confident with the plausible future. The fifth scenario lends itself to the teachers knowing and responding positively to collaboration which for some teachers does require education to change their understanding and mindset. By providing Principals (Managers) with support and knowledge can assist with the teacher recognition as indicated in scenario one. Scenario two  looks like a form of LMS and from personal experience by introducing this to my Principal last year it was decided that all staff would be allocated school email accounts. Not an LMS but now social networking within our school. By Principals working alongside other Principals their knowledge of new systems such as informal learning camps and the intelligent agents will be greatly accepted as a positive change which in turn will support teachers on the ground floor.

Thursday, 1 August 2013

Be Prepared The SP Way!

I like the methodology of SP. I think as change agents we need to think into the future and identify decisions that we need to make now for that future. I think the fact that it provides a holistic approach helps in the "now for tomorrow" direction. The advantages for me are a plenty. I like the way it is inclusive as that is where the creativity will stem from. By gathering ideas and knowledge through another lens you are able to identify factors that may affect the future whether it be political, economic, social, intellectual, cultural or technical. Overall I am positive about it as I think it takes that next step from where I sat which was strategic planning. Although there is a definite place for that in many cases and context I have been in SP would have been more appropriate and successful. With SP you are taking into account many more possibilities of the future where others such as forecasting do not.

Biggest disadvantage for me is the buy in from stakeholders. You need 100% commitment in the believe of this approach. People involved need to know that the decisions now will prepare us for the future. Creativity and imagination is another disadvantage. Some people just can't do it and certainly if you are in a room with people this may limit your confidence to be open to this form of process. It takes time for the process of scenario planning and again may limit buy in.

For my context SP would enable me to work alongside the people within my ecosystem that hold adoption of technologies and education back. We would be able to work together to factor out scenarios and make decisions now for the future. They would become part of the process which is an extremely important thing in this country even if they do not know what they are doing.

For the online workshop I would like the process to be broken down and that we actively create a scenario for a particular context. I think in groups would be best to share the knowledge and understanding.

How will scenario planning help with my use of the wiki to enhance collaboration?

Scenario planning will allow me to identify and consider possible futures I may face and in doing so I can make decisions now based on these plausible futures (Freeman, 2009). It will allow me to make my decisions encompass multiple plausible futures allowing me to be prepared for not just one possibility. By thinking creatively and imaginative it will allow me to open up and visualise the possible scenarios that could work in my context although this will take me out of my safe thinking zone it will allow me to be prepared to meet the future effectively.

By including everyone that is involved in the process of my study I will be able to gain new insights and strategies that may not have been available without this process (JISC, 2008). The inclusion of these stakeholders can help to recognise and adapt to changing aspects of our present environment. This for me will drive the management to be more positive with the adoption of new technologies.
Shell it seems has been at the forefront of scenario planning, their CEO Peter Voser explains that organisations that implement scenario planning "find it easier to recognise impending disruptions in their own operating environment". This is a big factor for me as politics is a major player in my environment especially as being an "outsider". Availability of technology and internet coverage can also be "hit" and "miss". By making decisions now for this plausible future will help to make the research and experience run smooth as I will be prepared for this disruption.

By using the scenario planning model I will be asking as Freeman (2009) states, "what will I do if this happens in the future?" (p.3). The great thing about it is, I will know, I will be prepared and the adoption of using the wiki for collaboration will be given every chance to succeed because these plausible futures have (hopefully) been thought of and decisions made now to be prepared for them.


Freeman, O. (2009). Scenario planning. BUSINESS21C

JISC Infonet. (2008). Retrieved from

Voser, P. (ND). Retrieved from

"'Scenarios can’t predict the future, so what’s the point?”

Scenario planning helps organisations to understand what may lie ahead in the future by encouraging them to think the unthinkable. It is a strategy tool to help identify potential future environments and identify the affect that decisions made now have on an organisation in the future. These plausible future scenarios allow us to make better decisions that we can apply now to help with preparations in the future. If the future does eventuate then they have an action plan to put in place. Scenario planning identifies long term trends and projects their likely trajectory in the future.
It is a strategy that supports the inclusion of all decision makers so they have a better understanding of how different factors can shape the future. It also allows for ideas to be shared where other strategies may tend to only use a specific group of people such as management who may not have knowledge of factors which may be important when looking into the future and making decisions.

This planning allows for decisions now to cover a range of scenarios in the future. It is not looking at a goal for the future as strategic planning does. It allows for companies to be imaginative, creative and engage with the uncertainties of the future.

Tuesday, 30 July 2013

Learning Adoption Trajectory View- Bibliography

Sherry, L., &  Gibson, D. (2002).The path to teacher leadership in educational technology. Comptemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 2(2), 178-203.

Description: The authors of this paper suggest that there are two fundamental limitations to traditional adoption models. First, it discusses the idea that the education system is not a single social system. They suggest that it is an organisation that is decentralised with embedded systems with teachers within all areas from the classroom through to the districts.  Secondly they believe traditional models ignore the external factors that impact on a school such as the evolution of the Internet and acknowledging and working with change facilitators within the networked community. The authors introduce the Learning Adoption Trajectory View (LAT). This model was designed because the researchers did not believe other models went far enough. This model like the CBAM model puts the teacher at the centre of the system. By teachers progressing through a series of four stages; (a) teacher as learner, (b) teacher as adopter, (c) teacher as co-learner and (d) teacher as reaffirmer or rejecter they believe supports the teachers to learn and use instructional technology. A fifth stage was added which became known as the teacher leader stage.

Evaluation: This model has been designed to go further than previous models and I believe it is a lot simpler and less cumbersome from those I have researched. By putting the learner (teacher) in the foreground I see it as an important step for my introduction to wikis in the classroom. By using the stages of learning table I can feel more confident and have a better understanding of what I need to do initially to be successful in adopting this new technology. It puts theory into practice by using case studies to show the value of this model. Although the model is centred on the teacher it also identifies and explains how certain external factors can have an impact throughout the ecologies in the arena.

Challenges In Less Developed Countries- Bibliography

Richardson, J. W. (2011). Challenges of adopting the use of technology in less developed countries: The case of Cambodia. Comparative Education Review, 55 (1), 088-029. doi:10.1086/656430

Description: Using Rogers' diffusion of innovation theory this article identifies the barriers, challenges and success of adopting technology in Cambodia. Although focused on the adoption by teacher trainers, this is transferable for any educator looking to adopt technology especially in a less developed country. Findings from data revealed that there were many challenges for these trainers to adopt new technologies from; hardware incompatibility, complexity, language barriers, lack of electricity and internet access, computers, minimal to no practice opportunities and little understanding of the advantages of the new technologies.

By referring findings and examples to the five attributes of Rogers' theory the author identifies the struggles that developing countries face when adopting new technologies, struggles that developed countries such as New Zealand can not identify with. Six categories were used to place participants in regards to their adoption of new technology, these being; early adopters, late adopters, reinventors, discontinuers, rejecters, undetermined. It was found that "different adoption groups were uniquely influenced by the five innovation characteristics" (p.27). Using Rogers' (2003) model captured the voice of the end user which as the author notes, has had less voice in past research.

Evaluation: This article highlights challenges that come with adopting new technologies in less developed countries. Qualitative data provided a voice for people on the ground not just figures, but a personal voice into their struggle. Detailed findings are supported throughout with examples from data to support a more holistic approach. These findings were analysed against the Diffusion of Innovation theory which the author identified as being an effective theory for framing success and barriers in the adoption of new technology. Cambodia's struggle, is a struggle that is shared in many ways to that of Brunei and their people. Brunei has many barriers to overcome and by using Rogers' model similar to this study I will be able to frame my own success and barriers to the adoption of the wiki in my own research.




English Language Learning Using A Wiki- Bibliography

Zorko, V. (2009). Factors affecting the way students collaborate in a wiki for English language learning. Australasian Journal Of Educational Technology, 25(5), 645-665.

Description: This research article identifies factors that affected the ways in which ESL (English as a Second Language) students collaborated in a wiki. Qualitative findings showed that the wiki provided a collaborative learning environment. Although there were positive behaviours identified it was not as successful in peer to peer communication and co constructing knowledge. The researcher identified factors such as the ease of organising regular face to face meetings, technical glitches, preference for publishing only final copies and the preference to use tools that they students were already competent with such as email and mobile phones inhibited collaboration in the wiki.

The study provides valuable personal student insights in how they interpreted their interactions and the reasons that inhibited and promoted collaboration in the wiki. It highlighted students’ attitudes, motivations and  problems that are associated with language barriers in the wiki environment.

Evaluation: This article identifies key factors that may affect my students learning in a wiki environment. The case study was descriptive in the findings and identifies areas that I, as the change facilitator need to be aware of when introducing it to my class. A strength of the research was identifying ways in which the wiki could be used in the classroom with the scaffolding needed to increase collaboration in the wiki.

Research was well supported throughout the background areas of the article but tended not to support as strongly data or ideas in the implementation, findings and suggestion sections. This study is important for ESL teachers as implementing new technologies into ESL classrooms adds another layer of challenges that need to be unpacked before it can be accepted and adopted.

Friday, 26 July 2013

Week Three Reflection

I wanted to create a reflection that works for me as a learner and as an educator. I think it is important to be open and honest for these reflections to assist myself to grow personally and professionally. If I look at the course to date so far, I must admit it is not rocking my boat. I feel at times stranded with little feedback to help guide my thought process. I always reflect back to myself as the teacher and how what I deliver in the classroom can affect the outcomes of student learning. The workload is high but I find it manageable to date. Initially I struggled with the format as I thought it was too busy and very unfriendly to navigate through. Shroff, Deneen & Eugenia (2011) theory, of perceived ease of use (PEOU), perceived usage (PU) and attitude towards usage (ATU) can affect the behavioural intention to use technology may initially have had an impact on me. I didn't find it easy to use and struggled with the change where I found it to be of little use from what I had been using previously. This certainly affected my attitude towards using it, but now I am through that dimension and hopefully on the other side. It is easy to see how, and I'm not saying that this was the case with this course, but if the student does not have the support and is not guided to the idea that this new technology (tool) is easy to use, is of use and I think needs to be better than what was there previously then as the theory suggests it strongly influences the attitude towards use. I would also think, the motivation to use the technology for the full intended purpose as well.

Readings have been both challenging and inspiring. Niki's article on the arena of change showed that what I do at the ground level has implications throughout the stand. An example is my introduction of utilising the wiki for the use of collaboration to create a piece of writing. This is a standardised paper test for our cluster so by introducing this technology and a different format has involved changes in the ecosystem. Already it is noticeable that certain areas within the stands are not cheering me on. I believe more information and support for their changing of opinion is needed. Reading the "Theories of Change" models showed how complex one change can be and how it has an ongoing affect around us. The CBAM model I thought was great as it looked at the cognitive concerns of the teachers and used developers as a supporting role. But the LAT Model was more direct in asking the questions, and I think a better model with the stages that it proposed. I like the idea of systemic change needing three processes before sustained adoption can take place; convergence, mutuality, and extensiveness. These three factors show the importance of communication and sharing for adoption of technology to take place.

Rogers' "Diffusion of Innovation" I found was very relevant to my technology tool (wiki). His theory of the five attributes needed to reduce uncertainty is certainly transferable to my context. Also relevant to my topic as it is now is the Technology Acceptance Model. When I read this I was over joyed as finally something was based on the students' perception. I could see this being relevant for my classroom as Brunei students with their limited exposure to IT and their lack of motivation can influence the adoption of technology in the classroom.

Through my own research into wikis I have learnt a lot. For me I am not a advocate of wikis. Not because I don't believe they are an incredible educational tool but from my previous experience in working with them. My knowledge so far through experience and research of wikis;

When I look back I can see how much ground we have covered in this course and how my ability to look at change and the effectiveness of it relies on more than just me. This is pivotal for my own thinking as at times I think of myself as a lone wolf, trying to stimulate, innovate and motivate my students to achieve with the help of technology. The readings have certainly helped my positioning on influencing the adoption of change which will hopefully have an effect in the future.

I made a comment in the forums that I was more influenced by my employer (an outside agency) and the MOE. I thought this was correct, but when I began setting up things in place for the adoption of this new technology I was pleasantly surprised to see I was actually working closely with the management within my school. I saw them further out in my arena but see they are closer than I thought. If I didn't notice this, maybe this would have had an effect on the adoption of the wiki. Something maybe as an outside contractor I take for granted.

I have three goals for the next three weeks
  1. To analyse readings (at least eight more) and report on them identifying the key findings and how they specifically relate to my context
  2. Play with wikis. Ensure I have begun to address my concerns so that I can give every chance of my topic been a success
  3. Stay on top of the course. Develop my understanding and share within this community and my professional community

Finally, my last thoughts. I want this paper to make a change. I want to make a change professionally to give the adoption of new technology every chance of success. I want to sleep at night without thinking about this course. I want to receive more feedback to see if I am on the right track or not. I want to reflect through this course and help others with their journey. I want to create knowledge and understanding throughout my arena.
I know there is a lot of wants but, if you don't want something and go for it you may never get there and if you do, you may not appreciate it.
Off to Cambodia next week so need to stay focused and work towards my wants and goals!

Thursday, 25 July 2013

Technology Acceptance Model

After reading articles that focused on the teacher and other organisations within the stands of the arena in relation to adopting technology I was glad to read the article;

Shroff, R. H., Deneen, C. D. & Ng, E. M. W. (2011). Analysis of the technology acceptance model in examining students' behavioural intention to use an e-portfolio system. Australasian Journal of Education Technology, 27(4), 600-618.

This paper explored the adoption of a new technology using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) with students examining if their perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness  and their attitude towards useage was influential in the students intention to use the new technology. The diagram shows links between perceived usefulness and the perceived ease of use influenced strongly the attitude towards useage.

This sits well with me in my context as I believe the ease in the way students in Brunei give up is embarrassing for them and their community. They do not strive to be challenged nor do they want to be. By modelling the usefulness of new technology (wiki) to students hopefully will ease some of the uncertainty around the wiki and they will identify as I will that wikis are the new way to collaborate in a safer environment. By allowing student to "play" will ensure students have confidence in accessing the tool and using it for its intended purpose. By allowing students to play they will come up with questions and problems that we can solve together (with myself having prior knowledge of the tool) and put the platform down that it is an easy tool to use.
Shroff identifies that if the system is not easy to use then it is more likely that it will not be perceived as useful. A great point for my students especially with their limited exposure to technology.

On reflection of the blogging I have previously introduced, both independent and reading group blogs this may have been more successful if I had shown the students the ease of use and the value that using it would have. Although this was touched on it was taken for granted that they would love it and be motivated to use it. Although students are more confident and use this more regularly now it was a hard struggle to get to where they are. I think by using the TAM theory this may have made it a more comfortable satisfying ride for both myself and the students.

Wednesday, 24 July 2013

Wednesday, 17 July 2013


A frustrating week which looks like it is going to get more challenging. The topic for this course "Change" seems to be the pain in my side. I too, like Lesley, am pondering in the early hours, pondering at night and while Ramadan is on, pondering at school. I think the light is flickering in regards to the focus of this course "what changes occur when we implement a digital change". It may sound simple but I was grappling for the understanding all week. It is an interesting thought that, as educators on the ground floor (which I am) probably never identify the true meaning of what is required when we grab a new idea and run with it. The implications for the "arena" and how one decision has a flow on effect. I'm looking forward to completing my case study as I think it is going to be a huge challenge in my environment. For me personally, changing my pedagogy is great, always looking to be flexible and organised. But for other dimensions in my arena I can see lip service and challenges from all different angles.

My students (well 70%) have and like blogging now. But as I sit here listening to the wind flowing through my banana trees from the typhoons in Taiwan and the Philippines (which is not overly strong)  I ask myself,  "will change benefit my students?" I like to think yes, but it is such a struggle to get anything in Brunei Education. Is the little change that could come from my research going to benefit them or turn them off what I am trying to deliver? I am writing this as I am meant to be participating online with an adobe connect session for my other course but due to the poor internet at the moment it wont load. These are just one of the many issues in regards to the internet that needs to be changed in my arena for technology and education to work hand in hand. 

EDEM 630: Arena of Change

The goal for writing my case study will be to identify the changes that were needed to be made and then identified throughout the study of using wikis as a means for collaborative writing. The information I will use will be a foundation of knowledge about the current state within my classroom/ school/ country and why the reinvention of collaboration using wikis is needed. I will identify the difficulties that this country places on technology and educating students for the better and not as a passive means of ticking a box. By introducing the wiki I will identify changes in our ecosystem and how the possibilities of future advancement utilising this tool will affect this “arena”.

As a person that does not like the format of wikis through prior experiences this is a real challenge for my personal change. My biggest personal change will possibly be changing my mindset but through in-depth planning and ‘playing’ I am hoping to swing the balance to a positive experience. My pedagogy will need to change to ensure students feel confident and are able to participate fully throughout. I will link to the Roger's (2003) "Diffusion of Innovation Theory" as this plays a key part in the adoption of the wiki and identify theories and models of change that can assist with the adoption of this technology. 

The key question I will look to answer at this stage will be, “What changes are needed within my school for the successful reinvention of collaboration using wikis in student writing?” The change in Brunei is more important initially in the local context as Robinson (2009) states “it’s conversations that spread adoption”. Ground floor working my way up. I have introduced AVAILLL into my school and it was kept at a ground floor initial trial/ research study. Through word of mouth the Ministry is very keen to implement it. By going directly to them this would not be possible.

Main themes:

  1. teacher/ student/ school pedagogy
  2. support within the school
  3. links to each change, how it affects the arena

I am hoping it is well received by the immediate community and that data shows an improvement in collaboration. I anticipate the initial support from management but they have little knowledge of technology in education and are comfortable in their traditional system. I hope to conclude that students are more motivated to create knowledge through wikis by collaborating through synchronous and asynchronous communication and that adoption of the wiki was successful by the teacher, student and school to support learning.

Robinson, L. (2009) A summary of diffusion of innovations. Enabling Change.
Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations. New York: Free Press.

Sunday, 14 July 2013

Annotated Bibliography

Writing With Wikis, Changing the Collaborative Learning Environment

Andes, L., & Claggett, E. (2011). Wiki writers: Students and teachers making connections across communities. Reading Teacher, 64(5), 345-350. doi:10.1598/RT.64.5.5

Description: This article looks at a school wide writing program designed by special education teachers in America. This year long program was to develop language skills and vocabulary in sixteen special education grade two students. Students were to participate in a writing project utilising wikis to facilitate collaboration among peers, parents, teachers and university students. Each month the students had a new focus utilising the wiki from journal writing to researching animals for publishing on Photo Story. Students communicated daily with their e-pals with teachers observing that students were actively engaged and motivated through this new technology. All students at the beginning of the year were below their reading level, only two were below their expected level by the end of the year. University students  provided feedback on the students' writing and invited them to write back weekly. This made the second graders eager to check for feedback. Parents also began to read the students' work. This change of pedagogy also allowed for collaboration between teachers from different countries.

Evaluation: This article was published by the International Reading Association and has been peer reviewed. Although the academic progress was shown through  reading assessment it is important to note that reading and writing are integrated disciplines. This article will be important for my case study as it highlights the fact that the students valued feedback from the wider audience and that this was a factor in their enthusiasm towards the tasks. This will help to support my idea about using a wiki to support, motivate and create meaning through collaboration. The authors used many references to strengthen their ideas and findings.

Davis, N. (2008) How may teacher learning be promoted for educational renewal with IT? In J. Voogt and G. Knezek (Ed.), International Handbook of Information Technology in Primary and Secondary Education': 507-520. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Description: This book chapter was written by Niki Davis who is the course leader for this paper. The chapter looks at the ecosystem and identifies the importance the role of the teacher as leaders of renewal of education systems with IT. It identifies the various different models of change through each layer of the “arena” and highlights the benefits of these changes as well as the struggles that come with the implantation of the change for the stakeholders. She goes onto identify the role of the teacher as the innovator using IT and dissects a variety of models looking at the various frameworks. Challenges of simultaneous renewal when overlapping ecologies in teacher education was reported on, finding that if  modelling of appropriate pedagogy, participation within the education field and available resources can speed up the educational renewal.
Evaluation: Strengths of this article are clear to see, not only is there a wide range of supporting references used but also utilises scenarios to put ideas in context. As the author moved through the ecosystem it became clear how each system can be affected by change. It was well layered in the sense it started with the global perspective down to the simultaneous renewal where the overlapping of ecologies identified the possible flow on effect of educational renewal and how the speed and adoption of the innovation can be affected. This is useful in the sense that as I go through the process of my topic and it evolves, I can see that the ecologies in my stadium will be affected and need to change. This highlights for me the need to work with these ecologies to increase the chance of adoption on the wider scale.

Morgan, B., & Smith, R. D. (2008). A wiki for classroom writing. Reading Teacher, 62(1), 80-82.
Description: This journal article focuses on a project involving college students, classroom students (no year given) and the classroom teacher using wiki technology to enhance collaboration between all stakeholders. The project involved classroom students choosing their own topic and through the use of wikis they were to present online reports in the form of compositions about their topic. Writers set up pages to ask questions of their readers focused around grammar and revision of their published pages. College students offered comments and suggestions. Feedback from students was positive as they found that not only was the wiki easy to use but also they found that the feedback they received from a wider audience strengthened the purpose and structure of their writing. Students identified they were more engaged with the writing task.

Evaluation: This article has been peer reviewed and comes from a reputable source. However, referencing ideas and findings from other research studies would have made the findings stronger and more reliable. Although it is not an in-depth article and only touches on aspects of the project and the change that occurred due to the implementation of using a wiki it has a lot of positive findings from the feedback of the classroom students. Using references from other research articles would have strengthened this article. This is important for my research as it is the students attitude to purpose and collaboration that needs to improve in my context. An important finding that will help in my environment is that students felt there was less emphasis on error, enabling them to write more freely without that initial worry of being incorrect.

Richardson, J. W. (2011). Challenges of adopting the use of technology in less developed countries: The case of Cambodia. Comparative Education Review, 55(1), 008-029. doi:10.1086/656430

Description: Using Rogers’ diffusion of innovation theory this article identifies the barriers, challenges and success of adopting technology in Cambodia. Although focused on the adoption by teacher trainers, this is transferable for any educator looking to adopt technology especially in a less developed country. Findings from data revealed that there were many challenges for these trainers to adopting new technologies; hardware incompatibility, complexity, language barriers, lack of electricity and internet access, computers, minimal to no practice opportunities and little understanding of the advantages of the new technologies.

By referring findings and examples to the five attributes of Rogers theory the author identifies the struggles that developing countries face when adopting new technologies, struggles that developed countries such as New Zealand can not identify with. Six categories were used to place participants in regards to their adoption of  new technology, these being; early adopters, late adopters, reinventors, discontinuers, rejecters, undetermined. It was found that “different adoption groups were uniquely influenced by the five innovation characteristics” (p.27). Using Rogers’ (2003) model captured the voice of the end user which as the author notes, has had less voice in past research.

Evaluation: This article highlights challenges that come with adopting new technologies in less developed countries. Qualitative data provided a voice for people on the ground not just figures, but a personal voice into their struggle. Detailed findings are supported throughout with examples from data to support a more holistic approach. These findings were analysed against the diffusion of innovation theory which the author identified as being an effective theory for framing success and barriers in the adoption of new technology. Cambodia’s struggle is a struggle that is shared in many ways by the Bruneain people. Brunei has many barriers to overcome and by using Rogers’ model similar to this study I will be able to frame my own success and barriers to the adoption of the wiki in my own research.

Sahin, I. (2006). Detailed review of Rogers' diffusion of innovation theory and educational technology-related studies based on Rogers' theory. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology. 5(2): 14-23

Description: This article reviews Rogers’ “Diffusion of Innovation” theory. The author discusses what Rogers (2003) describes as the innovation- diffusion process, a process in which uncertainty is reduced. He summarises the five attributes of innovation that Rogers believes “decrease uncertainty” (p.17). These being relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability and observability. Rogers believes that innovation that offers these five attributes will be adopted quicker. Examples of studies that used Rogers theory are also provided. The article also identifies “The Innovation – Decision Process”. This process as Rogers describes is a five stage process; knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation, confirmation. This process seeks out and processes information reducing uncertainty of the advantages and disadvantages of the technology for the user.

Evaluation: Ismail Sahin is a well published author in this field. His article has been helpful in identifying how Rogers’ theory will play a role in the introduction of the the innovation itself (the wiki approach). Looking through the change lens and using the attributes that Rogers identifies that are needed for the quicker adoption of an innovation the wiki meets them all within my context. These attributes will be visible for all stakeholders within my arena to see. The innovation- decision process is also an important aspect for my topic. I will be going down this path and it is important for me, that by introducing this change I am analytical in my decision to reject or adopt this technology. My understanding of the innovation could have a bearing on the adoption from others within my arena.

Shroff, R. H., Deneen, C. D. & Ng, E. M. W. (2011). Analysis of the technology acceptance model in examining students’ behavioural intention to use an e-portfolio system. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 27(4), 600-618

Description: This paper analyses the Technology Acceptance Model and examines students’ behavioural intention of using new technology (e-portfolio) by analysing the relationship between the intention of a student to use this technology with the student’s perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU) and the student’s attitude towards using it (ATU). Key findings suggest that these perceived thoughts can have an influence on a students intention to use technology. The paper acknowledges there are limitations with the study highlighting that students come to the classroom with their own beliefs  and values which may affect their perceived ideas. It looks at the value of students influence in a technology being adopted and having sustained use.

Evaluation: This paper comes from a reliable source. The authors have identified there are limitations in their study thus providing it seems open honest evaluation of their findings. A strength of the findings is the fact that they have identified the significance between the perceived usefulness and the perceived ease of use and how these to factors strongly influence the students attitude to using new technology. This is important for my topic as previous attempts for adopting technology into the classroom have not been as successful as I would have liked. Technology in Brunei is limited as is the exposure that not only teachers have but, students as well. This theory may strengthen the chance of adoption of technology within my classroom and enhance the continued use by students of the wiki.

Wheeler, S. (nd). Open content, open learning 2.0: using wikis and blogs in higher education. In Ehlers, U., & Schneckenberg, D. (2010). Changing cultures in higher education: Moving ahead to future learning (pp. 103-114). Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-03582-1

Description: This chapter looks at the benefits and limitations of utilising wikis and blogs in higher education. The chapter focus on the pedagogical change where the self directed, open learning style is challenging the traditional roles of both student and teacher. The author identifies factors such as globalization and economic stringency as having an impact on the use of technology in education. Focusing on wikis, it highlights the fact that students are reluctant to edit content by their peers and that student’s fear causing offence if they do this. The author also identifies that students struggle to keep up with the engagement needed for truly working collaboratively and often the enthusiasm wears off. He also calls into question how teachers are not changing to meet these new technologies and there sense of needing to be an expert is holding technology in education back.

Evaluation: The reliability of this chapter is strengthened by the authors use of supporting references from other research articles. Conclusions have been backed up with supporting evidence from information written under each subheading. This source is useful as it highlights not only the change needed by the student but also that of the teacher and how these changes can create difficulties for both parties. In closing he suggests there are many factors working against the successful use of Web 2.0 tools such as wikis but believes the main reason is the resistance to change. This is very relevant in Brunei where it is the teachers holding technology back as they are scared of losing face in front of their peers.

Wheeler, S., Yeomans, P., & Wheeler, D. (2008). The good, the bad and the wiki: Evaluating student-generated content for collaborative learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(6), 987-987. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2007.00799.x
Description: This article identifies the positives and negatives for using a wiki to support a collaborative student centred learning environment highlighting the change in pedagogy that teachers and students need to address. It proposes that the use of a wiki should be integrated in the normal classroom routine as findings showed that if used as an out of school task only, participation from students was limited to a minority. Revealing that to create an effective wiki community, students need to be confident to participate and have the skills to evaluate information, be creative and to work independently and as a team. The authors emphasised that educators and students should have the understanding that wiki based activities are for collaboration, not competition. Students aware of the unseen audience placed more emphasis to write accurately while being considerate of others. Wikis they found, transforms the learning environment, providing meaningful deeper engagement and encouraging a higher level of thoughtful writing.

Evaluation: The authors of this article are well respected in their field. Supporting references were used throughout the background to the article and data adding strength to ideas and findings. By identifying both, the positives and negatives of implementing a wiki it added a balance to their findings and recommendations. This article benefits my topic as it highlights that by changing my pedagogy, I have to show and model how students need to change theirs. Many of the negative findings from the use of wikis in this article have been similar to the adoption of the blog in my current classroom so I need to ensure the participants on my playing field are educated on the use and reasoning of the change so that they have the opportunity to participate and take ownership of the task while I remain as a moderator in the background.